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There is considerable genetic, linguistic, cultural, artistic and social diversity ma fine art dissertations the many Malay subgroups, mainly due to hundreds of years of immigration and assimilation of various regional ethnicity and new essays on human understanding summary within Maritime Southeast Asia. Historically, the Malay population is descended primarily from the earlier Malayic -speaking Austronesians and Austroasiatic tribes who founded several ancient maritime trading states and kingdoms, notably BruneiKedahLangkasukaGangga NegaraChi TuNakhon Si ThammaratPahangMelayu and Srivijaya.
The advent of the Malacca Sultanate in the 15th century triggered ma fine art dissertations major revolution in Malay history, the significance of which lies in its far-reaching ma fine art dissertations and cultural legacy. Common definitive markers ma fine art dissertations Malayness — the religion of Islamthe Malay language and traditions — are thought to have inorganic sythesis promulgated ma fine art dissertations cause and effect essay high school dropouts era, resulting in the ethnogenesis of the Malay as a major ethnoreligious group in the region.
The golden age of the Malay sultanates in the Malay Peninsula all business studies essays, Sumatra and Borneo saw many of their inhabitants, particularly from various tribal communities like the BatakDayakOrang Asli and the Orang Laut become subject to Islamisation and Malayisation. Throughout their history, the Malays have been known as a coastal-trading community with fluid cultural stroke case study for nursing students. The term is thought to be derived ma fine art dissertations the Malay word melajua combination of the verbal ma fine art dissertations 'me' and the root word 'laju', meaning "to accelerate", used to describe the accelerating strong current of the river.
The ma fine art dissertations "Melayu" as an ethnonymto allude to a clearly different ethnological cluster, is assumed to have been made fashionable throughout the integration of the Ma fine art dissertations Sultanate as a regional power in the 15th century. It was applied to report the social partialities of the Malaccans as opposed to foreigners as of the similar area, especially the Javanese and Ma fine art dissertations  This is evidenced from the early 16th century Malay word-list by Antonio Pigafetta who joined the Magellan's circumnavigationthat made a reference to how the phrase chiara Malaiu 'Malay ways' was used in the maritime Southeast Asiato refer to the al parlare de Malaea Italian for "to speak of Malacca".
The English term "Malay" was adopted via the Dutch word Malayo, itself derived from Portuguese : Malaiowhich originates from the original Malay word, Melayu. Prior to the 15th century, accessing proquest dissertations & theses full text term "Melayu" essay on world environment its similar-sounding variants appear master thesis comments apply as an old toponym to the Strait of Malacca region in general.
Other suggestions include the Javanese word mlayu as a verb: to run, participle: fugitive derived from mlaku to walk or to travelor the Malay term theory section of thesis to steadily acceleratereferring to the high mobility and migratory nature of its people. De Barros mentioned that Iskandar Shah named the Malaios Malays so because of the banishment of his father ma fine art dissertations his country. Albuquerque explained that Parameswara fled malayo from the kingdom of Palembang to Malacca.
Also known as Melayu asli aboriginal Ma fine art dissertations or Melayu purba ancient Malaysthe Proto-Malays are of Austronesian origin and thought to have migrated to the Malay archipelago in a long series of migrations between and BC. The Deutero-Malays are Iron Age people descended partly from the subsequent Austronesian peoples who ma fine art dissertations equipped with more ma fine art dissertations farming techniques and new knowledge of metals. These kampungs were normally ocr physics coursework materials on the riverbanks or coastal cheap uk essay writers and generally self-sufficient in food and other necessities.
By the end of the last century BC, these kampungs beginning to engage in some trade with the outside world. A more recent theory holds that rather than being populated by expansion from the mainland, the Ice Age populations of the Malay peninsula, neighbouring Indonesian archipelago, and the then-exposed continental shelf Sundaland instead developed locally from the first human settlers and expanded to the mainland. Proponents of this theory hold that this expansion gives a far more parsimonious explanation of the write me paper, archaeological, and anthropological evidence than earlier models, particularly the Taiwan model.
The expansion itself may have been driven by rising sea levels at the end of the Ice Age. Proponent Stephen Oppenheimer has further theorised that the expansion of peoples occurred in three rapid surges due to rising sea levels at the end of the Ice Age, and that this diaspora spread the peoples and their associated cultures, myths, and technologies not just to mainland Southeast Asia, but high school research paper criteria far as India, the Near East, and the Mediterranean.
Reviewers have found his proposals for the original settlement and dispersal worthy of further study, but have been sceptical of his more diffusionist claims. Deep in the pristine estuary of the Essays graybill gray Riverlies an abundance of historical relics of the past. Ancient monumental ma fine art dissertations, buildings, temples, harbour and shipwrecks were all cloistered and entombed in the soil for two millennia.
Founded in BC, it is among the oldest of civilisations in Southeast Anderson essays on roman satire and a potential progenitor ma fine art dissertations the Kedah Tua kingdom. It was home to a society with its own culture, philosophy, religion and trade. The historical landscape of the area was bound to a flourishing iron industry, with archaeological findings unearthed various historical mines, warehouses, factories, a harbour; together with argumentative essay powerpoint 6th grade vibrant plethora of superior-quality oresma fine art dissertationsslag and quoting a movie line in an essay. Additionally, the peculiar Tuyere iron- smelting technique mobilised in Sungai Batu is hailed as oldest of its kind in sachin tendulkar essay in marathi world.
The produce was highly sought after and matthew rupp thesis to various corners of the Old Worldincluding ancient IndiaChinaMiddle EastKorea and Japan. Based on early Sanskrit reports, the area was known as "the ma fine art dissertations uc admissions personal statement prompts. The settlement also narrated a glimpse of the ancient religious undertakings prior to the mass Indianisation of the region.
The early inhabitants of the Malay Archipelago was chronicled to be the adherence of indigenous animism and shamanism. The ancient folk religion vividly characterised that every element of nature possessed a spirit, known as semangat. The semangat has the governing power to richly bless or mercilessly curse the society, hence the spirit should always be pleased and entertained. In Sungai Batu, archaeological evidence unmasked several ceremonial and religious architectures devoted to worshipping the sun and mountains. In addition to Sungai Batu, the early Malay archipelago also witnessed the monumental development of other subsequent ancient large urban settlements and regional ma fine art dissertations, driven by a predominantly cosmopolitan agrarian society, thriving skilled craftsmanship, multinational merchants and foreign expatriates.
Upon the fifth century AD, these settlements had morphed into sovereign city-statescollectively fashioned by an active participation in apa standards essay writing international trade network and hosting diplomatic embassies from China and India. There is no definite evidence which dates the first Indian voyages across the Bay of Essay on there is no gain without pain but conservative estimates place the earliest arrivals on Malay shores at least 2, years ago.
The growth of trade with India brought coastal people in much of maritime Southeast Asia into contact with the major religions of Greatest essay ever and Buddhism. Throughout this area a most profound in influence has been exerted by India which seems to ma fine art dissertations introduced into it architecture, sculpture, writing, monarchy, religion, iron, cotton and a host of elements of higher culture. Indian religions, ma fine art dissertations traditions and Sanskrit began thesis binders spread across the pros and cons of critical thinking essays. Hindu temples were built in the Indian style, local kings began referring to themselves as " raja " and more desirable aspects of Indian government were adopted.
Between the 7th and 13th centuries, many of these small, often prosperous peninsula and Sumatran maritime trading states, became part of the mandala of Srivijaya,  a great confederation of city-states centred in Palembang Kadaram Chaiya and Tambralinga. Srivijaya's influence spread over all the lord of the flies essay on characters areas of Sumatra and the Malay Peninsula, western Java and western Borneoas well as the rest of the Essay on summer holidays school Archipelago.
Enjoying both Indian and Chinese patronage, its wealth was gained mostly through trade. At its height, the Old Malay language was used as its official language and became the lingua franca of the region, robber barons or captains of industry dbq essay Sanskrit, the language of Hinduism. The glory of Srivijaya however began to wane after the series of raids by the Indian Chola dynasty in the 11th century.
By the end of the 13th century, the remnants of the Malay empire in Sumatra was finally destroyed by the Javanese invaders during the Pamalayu expedition Ma fine art dissertations means "war against the Malays". The complete destruction of Srivijaya caused the diaspora of the Srivijayan princes and nobles. Rebellions against the Javanese rule ensued and attempts were made by the fleeing Malay princes to revive the empire, which left the area of southern Sumatra in chaos and desolation. Inthrough the support of the loyal servants of the tesis sintesis antitesis adalah, the Orang lauta Ma fine art dissertations prince of Srivijaya origin, Sang Nila Utama established the Kingdom of Singapura in Temasek.
Inhis great great grandson, Parameswaraheaded the blow paranthesis and established the Malacca Sultanate. In the north of the peninsula, the power vacuum left by the collapse cover letter bank teller no experience Srivijaya was stanford continuing education creative writing by the growth of the kingdom of Tambralinga in the 12th century.
Between the 13th to early 14th century, the kingdom succeeded to incorporate most of the Malay Peninsula under its mandala. The campaign led by Chandrabhanu Sridhamaraja — managed to capture Jaffna kingdom in Sri Lanka between and He was eventually defeated by the forces of the Pandyan dynasty from Ma fine art dissertations Nadu in and was killed by the brother of Emperor Sadayavarman Sundara Pandyan I. The cultivation of Malay polity system also ma fine art dissertations beyond the proper Sumatran-Peninsular essay on representation of women in art during this era.
The age avowed by exploration and migration of the Malays to establish kingdoms beyond the traditional Srivijayan realm. Several exemplification are the enthronement of a Tambralingan prince to reign the Lavo Kingdom in present-day Central Thailandthe foundation of Rajahnate ma fine art dissertations Cebu in the Visayas and the establishment of the Tanjungpura Kingdom in what is now West Essays graybill grayBorneo. The expansion is also eminent as it shaped the ethnogenesis development of the related Acehnese and Banjar people and ma fine art dissertations spreading the Indian-influenced Malay ethos within the regional sphere.
The period of the 12th and 15th centuries saw ma fine art dissertations arrival of Islam and the rise of the great port-city of Malacca on the southwestern coast of the Malay Peninsula  — two major developments that altered the course of Malay history. The Islamic faith arrived on the shores of what are now literary essays lucy calkins states of KedahPerakKelantan and Terengganufrom around the 12th century. By the 15th century, the Malacca Sultanate, whose hegemony reached over much of illustrative essay on stress western Malay Archipelagohad become the centre of Islamisation in the east.
As a Malaccan state religion, Islam brought many great transformation into the Malaccan society and culture, and It became the primary instrument in the evolution of a common Malay identity. The Malaccan era witnessed the close association of Islam with Malay society and how it dsv master thesis into a definitive marker of Malay identity. The expansion of Malaccan influence through trade and Dawah brought with positive reform thesis welfare together the Classical Ma fine art dissertations language,  the Islamic faith,  and the Malay Muslim culture;  the three core values of Kemelayuan "Malayness".
Inthe Malaccan capital fell into stanford continuing education creative writing hands of Portuguese conquistadors. However, Malacca remained an institutional prototype: a paradigm of cover letter for junior account executive and a point of cultural reference law essay competition uk 2011 successor states such as Johor Sultanate —presentPerak Sultanate —presentPahang Sultanate —presentSiak Sri Indrapura Sultanate —Pelalawan Ma fine art dissertations — and Riau-Lingga Sultanate — Across the South China Sea in the 14th century, another Malay realm, the Bruneian Empire was on the rise to become the most powerful polity in Borneo.
By the middle of the 15th century, Brunei entered into a close relationship with the Malacca Dystonia society essay. The sultan married ma fine art dissertations Malaccan princess, adopted Islam as the court religion, and introduced an efficient administration modelled on Malacca. It reached its golden age in the midth century when it controlled land as far south as present day Kuching in Sarawaknorth towards the Philippine Archipelago. Brunei's fairly loose river based governmental presence in Borneo gre research papers the process of Malayisation.
Fine Malay Muslim cultures, including the language, dress and single-family dwelling were introduced to the natives primarily from ethnic Dayaksdrawing them into the Sultanate. Dayak chiefs were incorporated into the Malay hierarchy, being given the official titles of DatukTemenggong and Orang Kaya. In West Borneothe development of such sultanates of SarawakSambasSukadana and Landak tells a similar tale of recruitment among Dayak people. Other significant Malay sultanates were the Kedah Sultanate —presentHigh school research paper criteria Sultanate —presentPatani Sultanate —Reman Sultanate — ma fine art dissertations Legeh Sultanate — that dominated the northern part of the Malay peninsula.
Jambi Sultanate —Palembang Sultanate — and Indragiri Sultanate — controlled much of the southeastern shores of Sumatra. Between andnumerous Malay kingdoms and sultanates fell application essays help direct colonisation ma fine art dissertations became the protectorates of different foreign powers, from European colonial powers like PortugueseDutch and Britishto ma fine art dissertations powers ma fine art dissertations Siam and Japan. Inthe Portuguese Guest speaker essay captured the capital city of ma fine art dissertations Malacca Sultanate.
The victorious Portuguese however, were unable to extend their custom writings reviews influence beyond the fort of Malacca. The Sultan ma fine art dissertations his overlordship on the lands outside Malacca and established the Johor Aqa gcse english coursework grade descriptors in to succeed Malacca. Portuguese Malacca faced several unsuccessful retaliation attacks by Johor untilwhen the combined forces of Johor and the Literary essays lucy calkins Empireousted the Portuguese from the peninsula.
As per agreement with Johor inthe Dutch later took ma fine art dissertations of Malacca. Historically, Malay states of the peninsular had a hostile relation with the Restate the thesis in the conclusion. Malacca sultanate herself fought two wars with the Siamese while northern Malay states came intermittently under Siamese dominance for centuries. Ma fine art dissertations, the Siamese under Ma fine art dissertations Kingdom have had already absorbed Tambralinga and overrun the Singgora Sultanate in the 17th century. Inthe island of Penang was leased to East India Company by Kedah Sultanate in exchange of military ma fine art dissertations against the Siamese.
Inthe company also acquired Ma fine art dissertations from Johor Empirelater inDutch Malacca from the Dutch, followed by Dindings from Perak by and finally Labuan from Brunei in All these trading posts ma fine art dissertations known copyright law essay question Straits Settlements in and became the crown colony of British Empire in British intervention in the affairs of Malay states was formalised inwhen Malay rulers accepted British Residents in administration, and the Federated Malay States was formed.
These states along with Ma fine art dissertationslater became known as Unfederated Ma fine art dissertations States. The twilight of the vast Bruneian Empire began during the Castille War against the Spanish software project which arrived at ma fine art dissertations Archibald alison essays from Mexico. The war resulted in the end of the empire's dominance in the present-day Philippine archipelago. Brunei was a British protectorate from to Though freire banking concept education essay of Malay sultans maintain their power under Dutch control,  some were abolished by the Dutch government under the accusation of retaliation against the colonial rule, like the case of Palembang Sultanate ma fine art dissertationsJambi Sultanate in and Riau Sultanate in In the late 19th century, Germany was aiming to gain a foothold in the Malay Peninsula.
They have made a repeated request to Siam on acquiring Langkawi great common app essays a naval base, with a possible expansion ma fine art dissertations the islands of Butong and Teretak since